According to statistical research, there is in the appreciation of colours, a colour encoding operative that coincides with the functioning of the brain and the nervous system (Alpaerts, 1983). Da Pos &. Da Pos &. Green-Armytage (2007) think that people on biological grounds, subconsciously but according to certain rules, lay links between emotions and colours. At the Technical University Delft, Pieter Desmet (2002) developed a measuring instrument, with which you can examine how products arouse emotions on the basis of their physical appearance cross-culturally. Other known intercultural studies of Ekman (1992, 1994), Lane & Nadel (2000), Oberascher & Gallmetzer (2003), da Pos & Valentini (2005) confirm the observed structures.
[Part of a] six-step sequence of the death of a cancer cell. A cancer cell has migrated through the holes of a matrix coated membrane from the top to the bottom, simulating natural migration of a invading cancer cell between, and sometimes through, the vascular endothelium. Notice the spikes or pseudopodia that are characteristic of an invading cancer cell. A buffy coat containing red blood cells, lymphocytes and macrophages is added to the bottom of the membrane. A group of macrophages identify the cancer cell as foreign matter and start to stick to the cancer cell, which still has its spikes.Shown: Macrophages begin to fuse with, and inject its toxins into, the cancer cell. The cell starts rounding up and loses its spikes. As the macrophage cell becomes smooth. The cancer cell appears lumpy in the last stage before it dies. These lumps are actually the macrophages fused within the cancer cell. The cancer cell then loses its morphology, shrinks up and dies. Photo magnification: 3: x8,000 Type: B & W print
17 January 2014
Under the Influence: Le Monde reveals top scientist’s industry links
New York University professor Paolo Boffetta, a top name in epidemiology and former International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) researcher, has in recent years provided a growing number of consultancy services to industry, claims French broadsheet Le Monde.
Commissioned by US industry organization the American Chemistry Council, Dr. Boffetta published articles in scientific journals in 2011 denying or understating the carcinogenicity to humans of TCDD (one of the most toxic dioxins), formaldehyde (a chemical found in many building materials), styrene (a compound used in making some plastics) and atrazine (a herbicide banned in Europe).
In an article part-paid for by Pepsi subsidiary Frito-Lay published the same year, he downplayed the risks of acrylamide, a by-product of high-temperature cooking classified as a carcinogen by the IARC. The following year, he put his name to another article, funded by Materion Brush, a multinational specializing in the development of beryllium-based materials for high-tech industry, claiming that "the available evidence does not support a conclusion that a causal association has been established between occupational exposure to beryllium and the risk of cancer".
In June 2012, he wrote an article on diesel engine fume emissions which concluded that "the weight of evidence is considered inadequate to confirm the diesel-lung cancer hypothesis". The epidemiologist’s declaration of interest discloses that he worked on this article as "a consultant to the Mining Awareness Resource Group [MARG]". MARG is a coalition of mining giants.
The French daily also reveals Mr Boffetta to be a founding shareholder of the International Prevention Research Institute (IPRI), a consultancy firm based in Lyon - where the IARC is also headquartered - which sells its services to industry to produce expert reports or scientific articles on health risks.
Read more: Épidémiologie: des liaisons dangereuses in Le Monde Science and Technology supplement, 16 December 2013 (in French)
Photo: Tongue Cancer